Every month, new research on the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) appears in the literature. The first hurdle is being able to reprogram adult human cells without using cancer-causing agents. To insert the reprogramming genes into cells, the first reprogramming approach used a viral delivery mechanism. A virus, on the other hand, may inject itself into the genome of a cell, potentially causing serious unintended consequences such as cancer. Do you want to learn more? Click Shoulder pain doctor near me.
It’s also important to fine-tune the reprogramming factors. Oct-4, c-Myc, Sox2, and Klf4 genes made up the first community. The oncogenic property of c-Myc is that it can cause a cell to become cancerous when it is expressed. c-Myc was discovered in the late 1970s, and its expression plays a significant role in the development of breast cancer, as well as in the majority of human malignancies.
Alternatives to c-Myc reprogramming had to be found before these cells could be used safely in humans. Seeking alternatives to using any gene for reprogramming would be the perfect scenario. Inserting new genes into a cell can cause mutations, disrupt other normal genetic processes, and have other negative consequences. As cells and tissues introduced into a patient differentiate and multiply, such negative outcomes will increase in number and severity.
The field is rapidly progressing. Small molecules have been successfully investigated as reprogramming factors by a number of research teams. Quite short nucleotide segments (nucleotides are the building blocks of the genetic code), peptides (amino acid sequences), and short-chain sugars are examples of small molecules. Dr. Hongyan Zhou’s team at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, recently used direct delivery of a series of reprogramming small molecules to produce induced pluripotent stem cells. This pioneering study develops a new method for growing safer cells for use in care and transplantation.
Initial research is underway to use iPS cells to treat a variety of severe and life-threatening diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia, muscular dystrophy, and diabetes have also seen significant preliminary research.